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    热作模具钢主要用于制造金属材料热成形用的模具材料

    来源:https://www.jnqhmj.com/ 日期:2022-05-09 发布人:guanli


    热作模具钢
    Hot work die steel
    热作模具钢主要用于制造金属材料热成形用的模具材料,用量***大的为三类通用型热作模具钢,即低合金热作模具钢,代表性钢号为5CrNiMo 和5CrMnMo;中合金热作模具钢,代表性 钢号为 HI3(4Cr5MoSiVI)、H11(4CrMoSiV)、H12(4Cr5MoWSiV)、H10(4Cr3Mo3SiV);高合金热作模具钢,应用***广的钢号为 H21(相当于3Cr3W9V)。为适应一些热作模具的特殊要求,研制了一些新型高性能热作模具钢,主要有以下几种;
    Hot work die steel is mainly used for manufacturing die materials for hot forming of metal materials. The ones with large consumption are three types of general-purpose hot work die steel, namely low-alloy hot work die steel, and the representative steel grades are 5CrNiMo and 5CrMnMo; Medium alloy hot working die steel, representative steel grades are hi3 (4cr5mosivi), H11 (4crmosiv), H12 (4cr5mowsiv), H10 (4cr3mo3siv); High alloy hot working die steel, the steel grade widely used in * * * is H21 (equivalent to 3cr3w9v). In order to meet the special requirements of some hot work dies, some new high-performance hot work die steels have been developed, mainly including the following types;
    (1)基体钢。基体钢的化学成分相当于淬火后的高速钢基体组织的成分,所以淬火后残留的共晶碳化物数量很少,回火后碳化物细小,弥散分布,钢的强韧性和热疲劳性能好,如美国的Vasco MA。
    (1) Base steel. The chemical composition of the matrix steel is equivalent to that of the matrix structure of the quenched high-speed steel, so the amount of eutectic carbide remaining after quenching is small, the carbide is fine and dispersed after tempering, and the steel has good strength, toughness and thermal fatigue properties, such as Vasco MA in the United States.
    (2)低碳高速钢。低碳高速钢是将高速钢的碳含量降至 0.3%~0.6%得到的,这样可以减少其共晶碳化物的数量,既保持较高的红硬性,又改的韧性和热疲劳性能,如美国的 H25、H26 H42。
    (2) Low carbon high speed steel. Low carbon high-speed steel is obtained by reducing the carbon content of high-speed steel to 0.3% ~ 0.6%, which can reduce the number of eutectic carbides, maintain high red hardness, and improve toughness and thermal fatigue properties, such as H25, H26 and H42 in the United States.
    (3)高温热作模具钢。对于马氏体为基体的热作模具钢,当工作温度超过 700℃时,其高温强度急剧下降,使模具磨损、变形而早期失效。为此,近 30 年来,国内外相继开发了以奥氏体为基体组织的 CrMn 系和 CrMnNi 系热作模具钢,加入钒、钨、钼等合金元素,通过时效硬化提高钢的强度、硬度和耐磨性,以适应工作温度为 700~800℃热作模具的要求;但是这类钢的导热性差、线膨胀系数大、热疲劳性差,不宜制作激冷激热条件下工作的高温模具,如日本的5Mn15Cr10V2、5Mn15Ni5Cr8Mo2V 等。
    (3) High temperature hot working die steel. For hot working die steel with martensite as matrix, when the working temperature exceeds 700 ℃, its high-temperature strength decreases sharply, resulting in die wear, deformation and early failure. Therefore, in the past 30 years, CrMn and crmnni hot work die steels with austenite as matrix structure have been developed at home and abroad. Vanadium, tungsten, molybdenum and other alloy elements are added to improve the strength, hardness and wear resistance of the steel through age hardening, so as to meet the requirements of hot work die with working temperature of 700 ~ 800 ℃; However, this kind of steel has poor thermal conductivity, large coefficient of linear expansion and poor thermal fatigue, so it is not suitable to make high-temperature molds working under chilling and heating conditions, such as 5mn15cr10v2 and 5mn15ni5cr8mo2v in Japan.
    (4)高温耐蚀模具钢。为了改具在高温下抗液态金属及其他介质的冲蚀和抗高温氧化能力,针对压铸模具和压制玻璃制品的模具,发展了高温耐蚀模具钢,如苏联用于制造铜合金压铸模具的 18X12BMEoP 钢1】,日本三菱制钢公司开发的用于制造玻璃成形模具的 3Cr13MoV 钢等。
    (4) High temperature corrosion resistant die steel. In order to improve the ability to resist the erosion and high-temperature oxidation of liquid metals and other media at high temperature, high-temperature corrosion-resistant die steel has been developed for die-casting molds and molds for pressing glass products, such as 18x12bmeop steel for manufacturing copper alloy die-casting molds in the Soviet Union [1], 3cr13mov steel for manufacturing glass forming molds developed by Mitsubishi Steel Company of Japan, etc.
    (5)高淬透性热作模具钢。为了适应特大型锻模钢的淬透性,热强性和韧性,如 ISO 975 标准中的 40NiCrMoV4(4Ni4Cr2MoV),法国 NF-35-590 标准中的 40NCD16(4Ni4Cr2Mo)等。
    (5) High hardenability hot working die steel. In order to adapt to the hardenability, thermal strength and toughness of super large forging die steel, such as 40nicrmov4 (4ni4cr2mov) in ISO 975 standard and 40ncd16 (4ni4cr2mo) in French nf-35-590 standard.
    (6)中合金高强韧性热作模具钢。这类钢能够比较合理地使用合金元素,降低了产品的生产成本,因此近几年发展较快。如在 H13 钢的基础上降低铬含量、提高钒含量,发展以 MC 型碳化物为主要强化相的钢种,代表性的钢号如瑞典的 QRO80,QRO90M。
    (6) Medium alloy high strength and toughness hot working die steel. This kind of steel can reasonably use alloy elements and reduce the production cost of products. Therefore, it has developed rapidly in recent years. For example, on the basis of H13 steel, reduce chromium content and increase vanadium content, and develop steel grades with MC carbide as the main strengthening phase. Representative steel grades such as qro80 and qro90m in Sweden.
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